Plantar Fasciitis Help

For anyone experiencing a bout of plantar fasciitis, the following may be of some help.


The Ultimate Bogu/Hakama/Keikogi Buying FAQ

I'm putting this in the the Advanced Topics forum because... well, only folks who have been doing kendo long enough to need bogu should really look at this.

This "Bogu Buying FAQ" was compiled by Neil Gendzwill-sensei (5.dan, Saskatoon (Canada) Kendo) and you will not find a more complete discussion on the topic. There are a few places where I have inserted my own comments/edits, but the credit for the majority of text here belongs to him.
I've lifted this list from the Kendo World message boards here:


1. Who are some online suppliers of bogu?

In North America,
Aoi Budogu
Bogubag (Koei) --- as of 11/6/07, they are temporarily not accepting orders
Mugendo Budogu

2. Which supplier should I use?

You should ideally use the same supplier that your sensei or other dojo members recommend. Having a good relationship with a supplier you can trust goes a long way towards making people comfortable with their equipment choices.

3. What are the dogi sizes? How do I measure for hakama and keikogi size?

Hakama and keikogi usually go by height. Your supplier should have chart indicating which height corresponds to size.

Hakama come in sizes from 16 to 30, where a 27 fits someone about 6 ft tall. This can vary depending on supplier, so check the chart if you switch suppliers. Each size difference is about 4 cm in length. My experience is that if your height is on the boundary of the published ranges, go down rather than up. If you have an unusually long or short inseam, you may need to go up or down a size. However, it is wisest to ask your supplier if you are unsure.

Keikogi marketed outside of Japan typically come in sizes 0-5, where a 5 fits someone about 6 feet tall. If you are bigger than that, sometimes they are available in larger sizes. Some companies will offer custom sizes for a resonable surcharge (typically around 20%). Higher quality keikogi come in sizes S, M, L, XL, and sometimes XXL, where XXL is usually the same as a size 5. Sometimes those sizes are written in Japanese characters. Sometimes, there are half-sizes. Sometimes there are long sizes. To find your size, check the chart. Go up one size if you are much heavier than average. You may have to hem the arms or the tails, but it will fit better around the chest.

4. What are bogu sizes? How do I measure for bogu?

Bogu usually are not sold in sizes, but rather you provide the measurements and the supplier picks the right sized pieces for you. Most machine-stitched sets and even some hand-stitched sets come in stock sizes. There are typically 4 or 5 different kote and men sizes, and 3 different dou sizes although of course it varies from one manufacturer to the next. Semi-custom sets involve adjusting the internal padding to a stock-sized men to fit you better, with everything else coming from stock sizes. Full custom sets are made to order in your size and available in the higher-end machine-stitched and hand-stitched sets.

Most good supplier websites will show you how to measure, and most every supplier needs the same measurements. For men, you will need the hatimaki and hokkaburi measurements, which are, respectively, the circumference around your forehead and the the circumference from the bottom of your chin to the top (center) of your head. For dou, you need the measurement across the opening of your dou, which is waist width (not circumference) plus a little more. Most people add a couple of fingers width, but some prefer bigger. Some suppliers automatically include this additional space when you provide the measurement. For kote, you need the circumference around the biggest part of your palm, not including the thumb, plus the length from wrist to fingertip. You will also need to supply height, waist, and weight. Some suppliers may request a tracing of your hand.

5. How do I pay for this stuff?

This varies from supplier to supplier. Many companies accept credit cards. You can also do a wire transfer of funds, or send a money order. Be aware that wire transfer fees are typically in the order of $30-$40, so for small orders, they don't make sense.

6. How does it ship? Where does it come from? How long does it take?

If you are ordering shinai or bokken, you will be required to use some sort of courier service such as DHL, UPS, or FedEx, as normal mail may not accept long packages. If you are just ordering bogu, you can also ship normal mail. The cheapest shipping option when ordering from Japan or Korea is surface mail, also known as "sea-mail."

Some suppliers maintain an in-house stock and ship direct to you. Some maintain no stock, and act as a broker between you and the manufacturer in Japan or Korea, in which case, the shipment is direct to you from the manufacturer. Some do a combination, only maintaining stock for cheaper, more popular items like shinai.

Of course, if you are buying from a supplier in your own country, it will arrive in the same time as anything else you might order. If it is coming from overseas and you use one of the courier services, it should take less than a week to arrive unless it is held up in customs. If it is sent by sea-mail, it will take at least one month and sometimes two.

These timeframes are all from when the product is shipped. It can take some time to fill your order. If you order custom or semi-custom, it can take 3 months or more for your bogu to be manufactured. Even ordering stock sizes, it is typical to take a month to fill the order. If you are ordering from Japan during their busy season in April when they are supplying school equipment, expect additional delays.

7. I'm confused by all the terms. What do I need to know?

Men -- the helmet
Dou -- the chest protector
Tare -- the waist protector
Kote -- the gauntlets
Mengane -- the metal mask part of the helmet
Mune -- the top part of the dou made of leather or equivalent (usually with some embroidery)
Doh-dai -- the hard shell part of the dou, made of bamboo or synthetic material
Take -- an individual bamboo stave in the dou-dai or in a shinai
Futon -- the padding over the head, wrists and waists, consisting of felt bound by cotton and sewn together
Himo -- the strings used to attach bogu, also the straps used to tie hakama
Machine-stitched -- when the futon is sewn by machine, resulting in long rows of stitches
Hand-stitched -- when the futon is sewn by hand, resulting in little square stitches
Tezashi -- hand-stitched
Shoaizome -- natural indigo dye
Hakama -- the divided, pleated skirt worn as part of the kendo uniform
Tetron -- an artificial material used to make hakama
Keikogi -- the heavy cotton jacket worn as part of the uniform
Kendogi -- same as keikogi
Uwagi -- generic for top of any uniform (kendo, judo, karate, etc.)
Shinai -- split bamboo sword used by kendo players

8. What should I budget for a beginner bogu set? I found something cheaper, why should I spend so much?

The low-end for decent quality bogu is around $400, and you probably shouldn't spend any more than $1000 (for a beginner bogu set).

In the end, you get what you pay for. It's difficult to compare apples to apples when shopping mail order, or even if you see the goods in person. Quality shows up in the use and over the long haul, which is why having a supplier you can trust is important. In the end, bogu is protective equipment for your own physical safety, so really think about whether or not you want to skimp on protective gear.

9. Should I get a very expensive set of bogu as a beginner, because more money means more protective?

Not necessarily. Some more expensive bogu protect better, some are lighter and thinner for competition. So long as you buy an adequate set, you will be fine and in a few years you will have a better idea of what you want in the high-end. I hope you will be practicing for a few years and upgrade, but if you are in the majority and are not, at least you will not have spent a lot of money. However, if you have the money and really want it, go for it.

10. What does the "mm" measurement mean? What's a "bu"?

In machine-stitched bogu, the distance between the rows of stitches is given in milimeters. In hand-stitched bogu, the stitch width is given in "bu", an old Japanese measurement equivalent to about 3mm.

11. What width should I get for a first set?

You should get a machine-stitched set of between 3mm and 5mm. Be suspicious of low stitch widths in inexpensive gear. The quality low-end sets are usually 5mm.

12. What palm material should I get on my kote?

If possible, choose clarino or deerskin palms. It's not the end of the world if you end up with cowhide, but you'll be happier with either of the other two. If you can avoid cowhide palms, do so.

13. Should I get a fancy color on my dou? How about a kamon?

You can, of course, select any color available, but Memphis Kendo Club strongly advises against any color other than black. Unless you are Japanese, it is not recommended that you not get a kamon.
Be content with selecting whatever embroidery pattern you desire for the mune.

14. What sort of hakama and keikogi should I get?

Most beginners are happy with a tetron hakama and a single-layer cotton keikogi. The vast majority of people choose blue for both pieces, but black tetron hakama is widely accepted and will be fine. You shouldn't need to spend more than about $100, although there are options for higher-end hakama and keikogi that can easily surpass that.

15. How much does bogu cost?

As stated before, the low-end for decent quality bogu is around $400. The high-end can be very high, and it's not so hard to custom design for yourself a $20,000 fantasy bogu from the catalogs. However, the point of diminishing returns for functionality starts at around $3000. Many people spend between $1000 and $2000 for a very good set, but you don't need to spend that much -- especially if it is your first bogu.

16. What am I paying for as it gets more expensive?

A lot of what you pay for is hard to see. Overall quality of materials improves up the line, as well as craftmanship. Here are a few things that vary:

- stitch width (see question 17)
- type/quality of felt used inside the futon
- type/quality of padding used inside the kote
- quality of cotton used to bind the futon
- quality of indigo dye used on the cotton and leather
- variable thickness padding in the men and kote futon vs. same thickness
- varying stitch width for machine-stitch bogu, tighter where needed
- style of stitching if hand-stitched (nagazashi is best, other styles are shortcuts)
- shape of needles if hand-stitched (round is better, triangular damages fabric)
- trim/reenforcement material: clarino, cowhide, deerskin in various grades
- type of mengane (duraluminum, titanium, IBB)
- type/quality of lacquer used to finish the men and dou (artificial or traditional)
- type of dou (plastic, fiber, bamboo)
- number of take (staves) in the dou if bamboo
- finish on the dou: even in plain black, there are different qualities
- type/quality of leather for mune (top of dou), cheap one is artificial
- stock sizing vs. custom sizing

17. What difference does the stitch width make anyway?

For machine-stitched bogu, stitch width has become shorthand for the quality of a set of bogu and many people only look at this number, but that's over-simplifying things. Within the same product line from the same manufacturer, a lower stitch width indicates a better set. However, as the quality of materials is also going up, it's hard to say how much the stitch width adds to the cost. All other things being equal, a tighter stitch width means the padding will be stiffer and stronger. However, some manufacturers believe that a wider stitch width is better, allowing the padding to absorb shock better and be more comfortable. In that case, quality of materials and constructions makes the difference.

For hand-stitched bogu, again stitch width means the padding will be stiffer and stronger. However, usually the quality of materials will be the same within the same product line and same manufacturer, and the stitch width drives the price. Smaller stitches makes a much bigger difference in price for hand-stitched bogu compared to machine-stitched bogu.

18. What width should I get?

Machine-stitch widths greater than 5mm are usually not recommend for adults. Most people would be best off with a 3mm or 4mm width. The $400 low-end is usually a 5mm width. The exception would be Chiba Bogu's "Mine" bogu, which uses a 6mm width but is both expensive and a good choice for adults. Some bogu manufacturers offer 2mm or 2.5mm stitching, but this is entering into diminishing returns and many feel make the bogu too hard and stiff, and cause the padding to be so pressed such that it is flimsy and not very protective. Mostly, the 2mm sets are marketed to people who believe that tighter is always better.

Most people opt for 1.2 or 1.5bu when buying hand-stitched sets. But if you are buying tezashi bogu, you shouldn't be needing to read this FAQ.

19. This 3mm bogu is cheaper than that one. Why should I pay more?

You can't compare sets just by stitch width alone. A 5mm set from one manufacturer can be better than a 3mm set from another. If the price looks too good to be true, it probably is. You get what you pay for!

20. Why are hand-stitched sets better than machine-stitched sets?

They aren't necessarily. Cheaply made hand-stitched sets are poor choices. However, a good one breaks in more quickly and protects better than a machine-stitched set. This is due to the way the material is stitched.

21. This hand-stitched set is cheaper than that machine-stitched set. What gives?

Cheap hand-stitched sets have recently become available. In order to make the price attractice, corners are cut. This way, people can have the pretige of hand-stitching without the price. However, the sets don't hold up and protect like they should due to cheap materials and construction shortcuts. Buying a cheap hand-stitched set is a waste of money -- you are better off to put the money into a good machine-stitched set in that case.

22. Should I get a titanium mengane? Are they lighter? What's IBB?

Actually, titanium mengane are about 100 grams heavier than duraluminum ones, but they are much stronger, so for hard practice where collision is possible, titanium is better. Recreational users are better off with the lighter and cheaper duraluminum. Overall, though, there normally isn't a lot of face-to-face collision in kendo.

IBB stands for "Ideal Best Balance", a specific brand of titanium mengane that is weighted towards the back. It is heavier than the normal titanium mengane, but feels better due to the balance.

23. What's the difference between clarino, cowhide, and deerskin?

They are different materials used for the kote and for trim pieces. In a beginner's set, the trim material is not so important but you should pay attention to the palms of the kote.

The most common palm material in CHEAP kote is cowhide. Cowhide palms tend to get progressively stiffer with use (they loosen up after you sweat into them a bit, or wet them down), which eventually causes them to tear. Theonly advantage to cowhide is cost. Expext to repalm or replace kote with cowhide palms after about 2 years of recreational use.

Tanned deerskin is superior to cowhide in that it tends to remain pliable after repeated soakings in sweat. A good set of deerskin kote can last 5 years or more of recreational use.

Clarino is artificial leather. Like cowhide, it gets stiff with sweat but it can be washed and becomes pliable again. Some people report they like their clarino palms very much, while others think they are a waste of time and money. The concept of clarino is to offer something relatively close to deerskin at cowhide prices.

24. What are kera? What are namako?

Kera are the puffy stitched tubes running crosswise at the joint between the wrist and hand in kote. Namako is another name for the same thing. Kote can be either single kera or double kera. Double kera are supposed to be more flexible and offter better protection. Mostly, they just look nicer.

25. What should I look for in a tare? What do the number of bars mean?

A cheap tare serves as well as an expensive one. Tare serve a function, but if you are going to cut corners, a tare is where to do it. They are expensive because there is so much futon. The number of bars is purely decorative. Some manufacturers make tare with a lot of bars to indicate a high-quality bogu.

26. What's a "fiber dou"?

A fiber dou is one that's made of a kind of compressed paper fiber, commonly mistaken for fiberglass. In fact, some suppliers will advertise their fiber dou as "fiberglass". Fiber dou is the normal construction for inexpensive adult dou. Cheap kids' dou are plastic (true plastic) and not suitable for adults, but the fiber dou works fine, expecially if you get the "bamboo look" variety, which add some stiffness.

27. Should I get a bamboo dou? What's the difference between 43, 50, 60, etc. take?

Bamboo dou offer more protection than fiber dou, but frankly, not enough to warrant the extra price. You are better off putting your money into men and kote. Sooner or later in your kendo career, you will want one, though, simply because everyone likes having a nice bamboo dou.

Like stitch width, the number of take (bamboo staves), goes up with price. More take allow the manufacturer to get a nicer bend to the dou. If you are bigger around the middle, more take are required -- some manufacturers offer 64 take dou for those with exceptional hara.

28. Can I get a fancy dou color?

This is a subject of great debate among kendo players. Conventional wisdom is that, "the nail that sticks up gets hammered down," so beginners are best advised to get a black dou and blend in with the crowd. Many people in the West think this is nonsense and say to go ahead and get whatever color suits your fancy. However, just because you think it's nonsense doesn't change the thinking of the traditionalists (like, the guys who sit on rank testing panels). If you pick a color other than black, you will get noticed and some sensei will care and others won't.

That said, women players around the world are just as likely to have red dou as black, so either color -- for women -- is perfectly fine.

Memphis Kendo Club does not have any policy on color dou. If you want it, get it --- just be advised of the previous advice. Every kendo player should have a black dou - PERIOD - if for no other reason than to wear for rank testings. If you want a color dou, you should talk to one of the club instructors for advice. Many people wear color dou, but most really good players who do so have traditional colors (brown, red, gold) in muted tints (no bright electric blue or green with prints of cranes or dragonflies or leaves, etc.).

29. What about a kamon? Can I use a coat of arms instead?

A kamon is a Japanese family crest, often worn as decoration on the dou. You can wear one if your family is Japanese or if your sensei has granted permission to wear his. Anyone else is just being pretentious. Anything other than a kamon is just silly.

30. Do I have to buy a complete matching set of bogu?

Not at all.
Some suppliers offer only complete sets, but many of the better ones allow you to mix and match from different sets. If you are on a budget, this is a fine way to build a functional set. Choose the best kote and men you can afford, and then buy a tare and dou with whatever is left over. You can always upgrade later.

Another approach if you are using club bogu is to buy your own stuff piece-by-piece, swapping out the club gear as you go. Many people buy a pair of kote first.

31. What is tetron? Should I buy a cotton hakama? What does 7000, 10000, etc. mean?

Tetron is a polyester blend commonly used to make hakama. Cotton hakama are more comfortable and look nicer than tetron hakama, but tetron are very easy to care for. Tetron requires no ironing and so long as you hang it up at home, you needn't even fold it all that carefully. Tetron can be machine washed without losing pleats. Cotton hakama must be farefully folkded, hand-washed (or machine delicate) and ironed. They are a pain to take care of. Most beginners buy tetron to start and after a while buy cotton.

#7000, #8000, #10000, etc. indicate the thread density of the hakama, similar to thread count in sheets. The higher the number means a heavier weight.

32. What are singleweight/single-layer and doubleweight/double-layer keikogi? What is shoaizome?

Singleweight (or single-layer) keikogi has, logically, one layer of fabric. Doubleweight (or double-layer) has an exterior and interior layer. Usually the interior layer is dyed different and doesn't fub off so much. A doubleweight keikogi protects better and looks nicer, but is correspondingly heaver and hotter.

Shoaizome is the traditional indigo dye used in keikogi and hakama. It is usually applied in great quantities and rubs off on your skin, turning you blue. You can help set the dye by washing it in cold water with a few handfuls of table salt or a few cupfuls of vinegar. Some people feel this doesn't help much, but you'll at least feel like you're doing something to avoid looking like a smurf after practice.

33. Why shouldn't i just get an artificially died keikogi?

Artificially dyed keikogi are available from most suppliers. The natural indigo dye looks nicer and wears well like a good pair of jeans. The artificial dyes look, ... well... artificial. However, if you prefer to avoid smurfdom, artificial dye may be for you.

34. What's the difference between a keikogi and a judo, karate or iaido uwagi? Can't I use the one I already have?

Kendo keikogi are longer than judo or karate uwagi and have a vent in the back rather than the sides. If you use judo or karate uwagi, your bare legs will show through the sides of your hakama. A karate uwagi is too light and won't protect. A judo uwagi is cut much fuller and with a heavier collar and is not very comfortable under hakama. The sleeves on a keikogi are 3/4 length so that they do not interfere with the kote. An iaido uwagi is the right cut, but the material is quite light and will not protect as well as a keikogi.

35. What colors are available for uniforms?

The hakama may be blue, black or white. The keikogi may be blue, white, shiro musashi (white with pattern) or kon musashi (blue with pattern). The only combination not used is a blue or kon musashi keikogi with a white hakama.

However, you should check with your dojo. All white is generally for children or women, although men occasionally will wear all white during hot months. Alternatively, it is not completely uncommon to see a combination of a white keikogi with blue hakama.
Shiro or kon musashi (white/blue with pattern) is almost exclusively worn by children. Some dojo require that beginners wear white keikogi and only yudansha may wear blue. Some require that all wear the same color. The vast majority of people pick all blue.

Memphis Kendo Club's policy for everyone is: All blue, all white, or white keikogi/blue hakama.
Alternatively, if you have a black tetron hakama, it is acceptable to wear either blue or white keikogi.

36. My dogi has arrived! How do I know it fits?

Your keikogi should not bind you in the shoulders and the sleeves should be no shorter than 3/4 length. If they are longer, they can be hemmed so long as the rest of the keikogi fits ok. Check that you can bind the ties. If it is long enough, but too loose, you can live with it or go one size down in the "long" version, if available. If too tight, you can go up a size or consider moving the ties if you have enough coverage.

Try on the hakama with the koshiita (hard trapezoidal panel) in the small of your back. The hemline of the hakama should be about ankle height when worn at the proper height -- you can adjust the hakama up or down a little at the waist. The front himo should be long enough to tie prooperly (i.e., bring to the back, wrap to the front, then back again and tie in the back). Similarly, the back himo should be long enough to bring forward and tie in the front. The keikogi should be long enough that no leg is exposed through the sides of the hakama. If too short, exchange for another size. If too long, exchange or consider hemming, espeically for a growing child. Cotton hakama typically shrink about 2cm after washing so keep that in mind -- they should fit a little long out of the package.

37. My bogu has arrived! How do I know it fits?

Try on your men by putting your chin in the cup and then rotating the men onto your head. Your forehead should be against the forehead pad while your chin is in the cup. The fit should be loose enough that you can talk, but still snug. Very snug is good so long as your jaw is not forced together -- it will stretch with use. The men-buton should cover the shole top of your head. Two of the bars of the mengane have a slightly wider spacing. This is called the monami. When your men is on, you should be looking out between those two bars.

Try on your tare. The himo should be long enough to tie properly, i.e., bring around the back and then forward again to tie. Put your dou on over your tare and tie it while sitting in seiza so that the bottom of the dou lines up with the joint between the belt of the tare and the flaps. Stand up and make sure the dou moves freely over the tare -- if you lift it up and drop it, does it settle down over the tare or get caught on the belt? Check the gap between the sides of the dou and the tare -- it should not be more than a couple of fingers on either side.

Try on your kote. Don't fiddle with the laces at this point, but rather get your sensei to show you how to adjust them correctly. Check that the joint between the barrel of the kote and the hand part is at your wrist. Your fingers should not be squished together. If you grasp a shinai with the kote on, the tips of your fingers should not be pushing at the ends of the kote. If you force your hand open and the fingers hit ends, but they don't when holding the shinai, that's a good fit. A little snug is ok. They will stretch, but not too snug. They will feel stiff and awkward at first.

If any of your bogu is too small, exchange it for the next size up. For dou, if you already have the largest size, your best solution is probably to stretch it -- ask your sensei to show you how. Another option is a custom-sized dou which are only available in bamboo and are expensive. It is easy to add material to the tare-himo if you are too big for stock sizes.

If your bogu is too big, ask yourself if going down a size is likely to make it too small. Men typically come in 2 cm sizes (hokkaburi measurement). Adding a pad either at the chin or at the top is a common solution to an in-between size problem. Kote or dou that are slightly too large are usually not a problem.

Kendo Tactics for 3.Dan-5.Dan Players

This, and the following series of posts, come from an article on tactics for 3.dan-5.dan Kenshi, written by Dr. Satori Honda, British National Kendo Team Coach.

The original article in full can be found at:


In the previous article, the tactics for Kyu grade practitioners and 1st~2nd Dan practitioners were looked at. In this article, tactics for 3rd~5th Dan practitioners are discussed. Firstly, I will describe methods of Keiko that 3rd~5th Dan practitioners are recommended to try out, to discover and develop their tactics against various types of opponents. This is followed by the continuation of ‘four opportunities for striking in Kendo’. In the previous article, two opportunities, ‘strike when the opponent finishes a strike’ and ‘strike when the opponent blocks a strike’ were covered in the relation to tactics. In this article, two other opportunities, ‘strike when the opponent begins to strike’ and ‘strike when the opponent moves back’ are discussed through ways of making an opponent attack or move back through the use of Seme and the practical use of the right foot.

For 3.Dan-5.Dan: Using Keiko to Develop Tactics

At this level, it is important to think how to develop Ji-geiko tactically when considering your ‘type of opponent’ and ‘your opponent’s type of Kendo’ whilst trying to extend the scope of your own Kendo.

Thinking about your ‘type of opponent’, for example, can be categorized into those; who are tall; short; those whose Ken-sen is high; or Ken-sen low; is slightly to the right; where the stance is big; or the stance is small; is wide; where the back foot is diagonally facing left; where the weight is rather on the right foot; or on the left foot, with posture straight; posture is leaning forward; or leaning backward and so on. Considering your ‘opponent’s type of Kendo’, can be also be categorized into types of Kendo in which your opponent; holds a shinai tightly, softly, does not use Te-no-uchi but relies on power, moves fast, is good at or tends to try Debana-waza, Kaeshi-waza, Hiki-waza, Renzoku-waza or feint techniques and so on.

As the above examples imply, when you think about ‘your opponent’, it should include both elements. To be able to do ‘your own Kendo’, it is quite important for you to consider, try, develop and acquire tactics for fighting against both ‘types’.

Here, as I asked you to do in the previous article, I would like to ask you to stop reading for a while and instead think, refer to the above examples and the Kendo or your Dojo members:

1. How are you fighting against various types of opponent and their Kendo?

2. What footwork, shinai and body movements, Waza and combinations of Waza are you using?

As I described in the previous article, also try thinking of the process of using Tokui-waza [your favorite Waza] and how much your Kendo depends on how clearly and quickly you can picture all of the possibilities in your mind. Thinking about the above things will also help develop the tactics you will need to create and try against various types of opponent and their Kendo in order to develop the scope within your own Kendo. As described in Tactics in Kendo Part 1, ‘doing your own Kendo’ does not mean doing Kendo in which you attack with the same timing and same Waza all the time against all types of opponent. How you fight changes and you must change your tactical methods of fighting accordingly to your opponent, their type of Kendo and the situation. This does not mean, however, you should try to do something you do not normally do. You must choose the best option or the best option may be unconsciously made from a variety of choices. Of course, a person who does not have any choices can only do one sort of Kendo. Such a person can easily beat some particular type(s) of opponent and their Kendo, but is no match for some others. Speaking from a position of coach, such a player is difficult to select and use. What tactics can we use and how can we fight? Here it is not my intention to describe what to do against every type of opponent and their Kendo, but I would like to describe some methods of Keiko that 3rd~5th Dan practitioners are recommended to attempt, reflect, revise, develop and refine their tactics.

The importance of pursuing Ji-geiko with people who are hard for you to deal with was described in Attitudes to Ji-geiko Part 2. To keep avoiding practicing with them is not a solution. Your problem will remain. It is suggested that you should try to do Ji-geiko with them more than with anyone else and try to overcome the fear and problems, by being struck again and again, reflecting on your Ji-geiko with them, planning and creating your tactics. In addition to this, here, I would also like to recommend actually trying to copy their Kendo. I think that we all have had this experience of trying to copy someone’s Kendo that we admire. We try to copy that person’s way of Kamae, footwork, posture and attacking, trying to be that person and trying to gain something from doing it. Trying to copy someone’s Kendo that is hard for you to deal with in Ji-geiko is the same. By trying to copy that person’s Kendo and trying to be that person you are trying to grasp the feeling of that person’s attacks and strikes and also try to grasp what type of Seme that person may not like and where that person may not like being attacked against i.e. Men Kote, do etc, where there may be a weaknesses and so on. By adopting a style of Kendo that you find difficult, you may also get insights into the strengths of that style whilst practicing with a junior and be made aware of those weaknesses when you practice with a senior.

Article by Dr. Satori Honda-sensei, British National Kendo Team Coach

For 3.Dan-5.Dan: Learning Seme to Make Opponent Strike or Move Back

Previously, I referred to ‘four opportunities for striking’ and said that ‘striking when the opponent finishes a strike’ would be an important tactic for Kyu grade practitioners to learn and try during Ji-geiko with other Kyu grade holders. I also talked about attacking with feint actions and attacking with Sute-waza and Mise-waza that makes use of one’s Tokui-waza for 1st~2nd Dan practitioners.

These are related to ‘striking when the opponent block a strike’ within the four opportunities for striking. In addition to these, 3rd Dan and the above practitioners should learn two other opportunities for striking, ‘striking when the opponent begins to strike’ and ‘striking as the opponent moves back’.

What is expected of practitioners at this level is to have acquired the proper technique of Te-no-uchi in both Shikake-waza and Oji-waza. I don’t not mean that you should be able to execute both Shikake-waza and Oji-waza with the proper technique of Te-no-uchi in Ji-geiko, but that you should at least be able to do them in Waza-geiko when there is normally no resistance from your partner and you know where they are going to attack. In my experience, however, less than half of practitioners at this level in the U.K. can show the proper technique of Te-no-uchi in Waza-geiko. By acquiring proper Te-no-uchi, we can attack and defend without relying too much on our physical power, practice with anyone irrespective of the difference in sex, age and physique, and practice throughout our lifetime. It is no exaggeration to say that acquiring Te-no-uchi is vital for lifelong Kendo. However the purpose of this article is to describe tactics and not to describe methods of acquiring the technique of Te-no-uchi. The following focuses on two opportunities for striking, ‘striking when the opponent begins to strike’ and ‘striking as the opponent moves back’ and proceeds on the premise that practitioners have a proper understanding of the technique of Te-no-uchi.

Article by Dr. Satori Honda-sensei, British National Kendo Team Coach

For 3.Dan-5.dan: Seme in Kendo

It should be fairly obvious that striking when the opponent begins to strike or moves back does not just mean waiting for the opponent’s action. 3rd Dan ~ 5th Dan practitioners are required to learn methods of Seme that will make the opponent strike or move back. Let’s examine what Seme is before discussing methods of Seme. According to the Japanese-English Dictionary of Kendo (A.J.K.E., 2000, p. 83), Seme in Kendo is explained as “To take the initiative to close the distance with the opponent with full spirit. This puts the opponent off balance mentally and physically and prevents them from moving freely.” This definition gives the impression that Seme occurs in only one situation. However, it is my opinion that the pressure generated by Seme can be felt at all distances and in all situations. That is, even if you are at very close distance such as Tsuba-zeriai, where you cannot get any closer or alternatively at a far distance, it is quite important to give Seme with full spirit and with the action that aims to take an advantage and overwhelm the opponent. Due to page limits, some methods of Seme in situations where you and your opponent are facing each other in Kamae are not covered here. However these methods of Seme are quite importantly related to how you make your opponent strike or move back.

Article by Dr. Satori Honda-sensei, British National Kendo Team Coach

For 3.Dan-5.Dan: Seme from Kamae

There are an infinite number of methods of Seme in Kendo. Here attention is paid to the practical use of the right foot and some of the methods of Seme that include making your opponent strike or move back.

Traditionally in Kendo, the right foot is called ‘Seme-ashi (foot used for Seme)’ and the left foot is called ‘Jiku-ashi (foot used for supporting the body)’. You need to use the right foot softly, smoothly and freely to give pressure and invite the opponent to initiate an attack. You need to feel as if your left foot, left leg, left hip and left side of the body is connected by one line and you also need to make your left foot ready for following the right foot and Fumikiri anytime. If however the distance between your right foot and left foot is too wide from front to rear, or the centre of gravity moves forward and backward or from backward to forward, or your upper body leans forward and backward in the Kamae, whilst you are trying to give pressure to each other, inviting to initiate an attack, you will not be able to use both feet as described above. You will not then be able to see your opponent in a fixed position and the timing of your striking will be easily sensed, when the stance of the feet is too wide and movement of the centre of the gravity is also big.

It is important, therefore for practitioners at this level to understand how to use ‘Seme-ashi’ and ‘Jiku-ashi’ and develop their Kendo so that they give Seme with smaller and more effective movements. What follows is a description of some methods of Seme-ashi.
Firstly, it is important for you to be physically and mentally prepared to attack your opponent and to react to your opponent’s attack from the moment you take Kamae after standing up from Sonkyo. It is said that Kendo starts with Rei and finishes with Rei. I don’t think that this only refers to the matter of etiquette. From the moment you face your opponent and bow, your fight begins and it is important to remain focused until the final Rei with your opponent. If you attempt to do your Keiko with this attitude, you will discover the most suitable methods of putting your weight on the feet, taking the stance between the feet, keeping your Ken-sen, stretching your left leg, bending the right knee and so on. If your attitude to how you take Kamae changes, your footwork will change, your posture will change, your Seme will change and your Kendo will change.

Earlier I described the use of the right foot as Seme-ashi. The right foot is also used as a kind of radar that can detect the opponent’s intention. Ji-geiko, Shiai and grading examinations normally start with the two practitioners trying to ‘search out’ and discover each other’s type of Kendo and intention, as well as trying to give pressure with their own tactics. For this ‘searching’ and ‘pressurizing’, bring your right foot slightly (only slightly) forward, without leaning forward and losing the feeling that your left foot, left leg, left hip and left side of the body are connected. At the same time, try to give pressure together with invitations to your opponent to attack by using the Shinai in the following ways; Osae, Harai, straight in, raising the Ken-sen up or lowering it. In the situation when your opponent does not react to your Seme or you feel uncomfortable with the timing, distance and body balance, bring your left foot up and slide the right foot forward again, searching and pressuring or bring back your right foot and start over again. In addition to this, there are other ways of practical use of the right foot. For example, you stamp on the floor quickly and strongly with the right foot or bend your right knee quickly and slightly in order to get the opponent agitated or make the opponent initiate an attack.
If you would like to get closer to your opponent (especially when you fight against someone tall) without them knowing, bring your left foot up firstly to the right foot before sliding the right foot forward (Tsugi-ashi technique). As the result of or in the process of the above ‘searching’ and ‘pressurizing’, you find an opportunity, you must immediately go and strike. If your opponent feels strong pressure from you and moves back, you immediately follow and give your opponent bigger pressure or follow and strike. If your opponent begins to strike or strikes, use (Debana-waza) or counterattack (Oji-waza).

What you should be very careful of is the timing as you bring your left foot up. It is quite difficult to react if your opponent attacks at this point. In fact, top level kendo-ka are looking for this point and can score a wonderful Tobikomi-men. All of the top level Sensei that I know check that they are standing firmly by keeping a line between the left foot, left leg, left hip and left side of body and are in the position that they can attack and react to their opponent’s attacking at anytime. Moreover, their skilful use of the right foot and Shinai handling make their opponent’s initiate an attack (for example Men) enabling them to counterattack beautifully (for example Kaeshi-Do). Their skilful use of the right foot and Shinai handling also gives their opponent strong pressure and makes them move back. Then they are immediately followed and struck by a wonderful Men or Kote-Men.

In conclusion there are an infinite numbers of methods in the use of Seme in Kendo and the above methods are just some examples. I think, however, that these patterns of Seme are well worth while practicing in order to acquire a higher quality of Kendo and Kendo that you can continue throughout your life.

Article by Dr. Satori Honda-sensei, British National Kendo Team Coach

Learning Kendo Tactics -- 1.Dan and 2.Dan

It is assumed that practitioners at this level can make a sharp strike with small and quick hands and body movement and powerful Fumikiri and Fumikomi. I suggest therefore, that practitioners develop the simple tactics of Osae-waza and Harai-waza and try to attack with feint actions. As the practitioners at this level probably already know, even if you try to strike Men after Osae against someone at the same level or senior, in most instances their Shinai will be blocking the target before your Shinai reaches it, unless your attacking speed is very fast. The same thing will usually happen when you try to strike Kote after Harai from left to right. This suggests that using feint actions before striking are an important tactic. Of course, learning feint actions progress from simple ones to complicated ones. What I would like to introduce here for the practitioners at this level are quite simple feint actions and a slightly complicated one.

Some examples of simple ones are,
"pretend to attack Men after using Osae -> make the opponent defend Men -> then actually attack Kote or Do" and
"pretend to attack Kote after using Harai from left to right -> make the opponent defend Kote -> then actually attack Men".
This develops into slightly complicated ones such as "pretend to attack Kote-Men after using Harai from left to right -> make the opponent defend Men -> then actually attack Do".

What has to be remembered in trying to use these feint actions at this level is act first! Outwit the opponent properly and then strike". For example, in the case of "pretend to attack Men after using Osae -> make the opponent defend Men -> then actually attack Do", you need to lift up your Shinai with a big movement after using Osae to make your opponent believe that you are coming to strike Men and it is easy to defend it.

When trying to use "feint action then strike", many practitioners tend to try to do it too quickly. This will result in not being able to act properly and your opponent will not defend as you wish. The practitioners at this level should remember that what is important for them is not to move fast, but by skilful and slightly exaggerated acts, to make their opponent judge that he / she can defend the target easily by using only their Shinai.

It is also assumed that practitioners at this level have some Tokui-waza (waza that they are good at and use with confidence to score). In addition to tactics with feint actions, what practitioners at this level are recommended to try is to develop their Ji-geiko with thoughts of when or in what situation they should use their Tokui-waza. Here I would like to ask you to stop reading for a while and think:

1 How long after the start of Ji-geiko or Shiai do you attempt your Tokui-waza?

2 What are the conditions of attempting your Tokui-waza? e.g. distance, timing

I would also like you to think about what type of opponent you think that you can / cannot score by your Tokui-waza.

Can you have a picture(s) of a particular situation(s) and type(s) of opponent(s)? How much you know in your Kendo depends on how clearly you can bring picture(s) in your mind. Even if you do not think that you have any Tokui-waza, I would suppose that at least you have your favorite Waza and I suggest that you start thinking of your tactics and how you can use your favorite Waza effectively in Ji-geiko and Shiai. If you cannot bring any picture of a situation and type of opponent, then use your Tokui-waza in your mind; I also suggest that you start reflecting how you fight after each Ji-geiko. As described in the previous article, thinking about the above things will not only help you develop your tactical ability, but also help you develop greater scope in your Kendo and deepen your understanding of the technical and psychological structure, the mechanism of each Waza and its interaction with others.

As well as using feint actions, there are "Sute-waza" or "Mise-waza" that you can use to develop your Ji-geiko and Shiai. Literary "Sute" means to "throw away" and "Mise" means to "show". The meanings of these words here as tactics in Kendo are "Waza that are used for the purpose not of scoring but planting different Waza in your opponents mind so that you can make your Tokui-waza work more effectively in later attacking". Taking easy examples, to score your Tokui-waza, Kote-Do, you can attack simple Kote-Men a couple of times, make your opponent think that your Kote-Men is easy to defend and make the opponent defend by using only hands (then attack Kote-Do). You attack a powerful and sharp Kote a couple of times to score by Katsugi-Men later. An important point is that you should not attack by using only your hands but should attack with your whole body even if the Waza that you use is "Sute-waza" or "Mise-waza". Otherwise you will not be able to plant in your opponents mind the fact that you are attacking and you may get counterattacked easily. Here again, you need to show "realistic acting". Your Sute-waza or Mise-waza may reach a target even if you didn"t intend it. In that case, of course, you need to make it Ippon, so you need to use your Sute-waza" or "Mise-waza with Ki-ken-tai-no-itchi.

As you gain experience, you are expected not only to develop your Tokui-waza and favorite techniques, but also to improve the Waza that you are not good at and to become able to deal with people whose type of Kendo is hard for you to fence. For this, as described in "Attitudes to Ji-geiko part 2", continuing to avoid practicing with people who are hard for you to deal with is not a solution. It will remain your weak point. You should try to do Ji-geiko with them more often than with anyone else. Your attempt will fail and you will be struck again and again, but you cannot overcome this unless you keep trying. Learning through being struck is the way of developing Kendo. Of course, it is also important to try new techniques. However, do not try to do too many things in one Ji-geiko, but have appropriate task(s), considering your current ability and referring to your teachers teaching and advice.

Article by Dr. Sotori Honda-sensei, British National Kendo Team Coach

Learning Kendo Tactics - For KYU Grade Holders

It is quite often seen in Kyu grade holders' Ji-geiko, Shiai and grading examination that they keep attacking big Men from the same distance and with the same timing. Similarly, their teachers are often seen giving advice to "Keep attacking" or "Give everything". When one side starts moving and tries to attack big Men, the other side soon reacts and starts doing the same. As the result, they keep hitting each others Shinai before reaching their opponents Men and a successful strike does not happen for a long time. At this level, as described in Attitudes to Ji-geiko part 1, it is certainly important for them to try to use techniques they have learnt in Kihon-geiko without hesitating and being shy. This would be their first simple, but important tactic. However, you cannot learn opportunities for attacking by repeating the same techniques from the same distance and in the same timing. Typically in Kendo, there are four opportunities for striking, which are; when the opponent begins to strike; when the opponent blocks a strike; when the opponent finishes a strike; and when the opponent moves back. In these, "striking when the opponent finishes a strike" would be an important tactic for Kyu grade holders to learn and try during Ji-geiko with other Kyu grade holders. Taking a concrete example, many Kyu grade holders tend to go though either side of an opponent after attacking, exposing their back completely to their opponent just like they do in Kihon-geiko. When this happens to your opponent in Ji-geiko, you should immediately follow then and attack as the opponent turns around. An additional merit of learning this tactic is that it will make them realize the importance of trying always to keep an eye on their opponent whilst fighting as well as realizing that there is an opportunity to strike when an opponent takes their eyes off, losing concentration

When Kyu grade holders have Ji-geiko with their seniors, they tend to feel, in many cases, difficulty in completing their attack and stop their attacking in the middle of an action or keep moving back. Then teachers and seniors shout, "Keep attacking" or "Give everything". Unlike Kyu grade holders, their seniors do not expose their back during Ji-geiko (or at least they are not supposed to). In this instance, it is not easy for a Kyu grade holder to execute the tactic of "striking when the opponent finishes a strike".

What is recommended for Kyu grade holders in Ji-geiko with their seniors is to try to kill their opponents Shinai before striking. This means that you do not just attack straight but try to deflect the tip of the seniors Shinai by using Osae-waza (pushing the opponents Shinai down) and Harai-waza before striking (knocking the opponents Shinai from right to left, from the left to right, from the lower right to the upper left, from the lower left to the upper right, from the upper right to the lower left or from the upper left to the lower right) (see also Japanese-English Dictionary of Kendo, pp. 30-31). Of course, it does not mean that you can definitely score on your seniors if you use these. You will still be blocked by them. At this stage however, starting to learn "how to break the opponents centre" which is the most basic and important tactic in Kendo, is quite important no matter how simple it is. This simple tactic of "breaking the opponents centre" develops into more complicated and effective ones as you develop your footwork, Fumikiri, Fumikomi, speed and Te-no-uchi (I will explain this in detail later). As I described in "Attitudes to Ji-geiko Part 2", Kyu grade holders should focus mainly on developing Shikake-waza. It is important not to be afraid of being dodged and counter attacked, and not to stop attacking in the middle of your action, but to try to complete your attack. In this article, I would like to suggest the use of "Osae-waza" and "Harai-waza" in your Ji-geiko (and of course you need to practice these in Waza-geiko as well).

Although this may not be directly related to the tactics, here I would like to add something about defence in Kendo, which I briefly mentioned in "Attitudes to Ji-geiko part 1" . As a term "Bogyo no tame no bogyo nashi (no defence just for defence)" basically says that, in Kendo, defence is supposed to be done in order to promote the next attack and one has to make an action of attacking immediately after defending. This is also called "Ko-bo-icchi" in traditional Kendo terminology. As described earlier however, even if Kyu grade holders try to attack immediately after defending their seniors attacking, the seniors should not show their back to them and so Kyu grade holders will not be skilful and fast enough to counterattack with Oji-waza or Kaeshi-waza. I suppose, on the contrary, that they have not learnt and acquired the basic skills of how to defend an opponents attack. Strangely enough, methods of defence are seldom taught but left to a practitioners" self-learning and by experience in many clubs. Because of this, I think that many Kyu grade holders try to defend in their own (uneconomical) ways when they are attacked by their seniors and they have no opportunity to learn the idea of "Bogyo no tame no bogyo nashi". Okajima (1992) points out that beginners" anxiety and fear of opponents" attacking would prevent them from finding opportunities for a strike. I suggest, therefore, that teachers show basic defence techniques to beginners before they are allowed to join Ji-geiko. Here what I mean by basic defence techniques is not to defend by only blocking an opponents Shinai by just using ones own Shinai. What one has to be learnt are "Metsuke (positioning of the eyes)" and "defence with Ki-ken-tai-no-itchi". Beginners tend to stand and gaze only at their opponents Shinai and their hands tend to move as the opponent moves their Shinai. Therefore, they are quite often easily caught by a feint action such as "pretending to attack Men by lifting the arms up and actually attack Do". According to the Japanese-English Dictionary of Kendo (2000, p. 62), Metsuke is explained as "The act of paying attention to the opponents whole body while looking into their eyes." In addition, there is also another term to teach us the positioning of the eyes called "Enzan-no-metsuke (looking at a far away mountain)". The Japanese-English Dictionary of Kendo (2000, p. 24) explains, "It is important to look at the figure of the opponent as a whole rather than at a particular point, as if looking at a far away mountain." As for "defence with Ki-ken-tai-no-itchi", when one defends, one needs to try to defend by keeping a positive mind and using the Shinai, footwork and body movement. The term "Ki-ken-tai-no-itchi" is normally used for expressing the striking action, but its concept should also be applied to defence. It is not easy for beginners to do this. However, it is in your best interest, that you develop your Kendo through being struck over and over again, keeping proper posture and effective defence position, which will not necessarily be effective at first. In the future you will develop the skill to make a defence in the most efficient way. Okajima (1992) argues that strong defence is an important element in performance in Kendo. If that is so, then learning defence techniques with an understanding of "Bogyo no tame no bogyo nashi" at this stage will be quite useful towards helping execute high-level tactics in the future.

Article by Dr. Satori Honda-sensei, British National Kendo Team Coach

Some thoughts on 4.dan shinsa

These are just some very general thoughts for 4.dan shinsa, coming from a 7.dan in the AUSKF..

Try as much to demonstrate solid basics.
If you attack don't hold back and don't swipe at the kote.
Do not back up.
Try to use a strong kamae and penetrate with hit.
Don't make too many strikes a couple good ones made strongly and at the right time are all you need.
Do not worry about the other person hitting you but if possible receive their attack and counter. If I was on your exam board, first and formost for 4 dan I want to see correct footwork and use of hands.

By "penetrate with hit", I mean as follows:
Penetrate by phyiscally taking the center, penetrate with your ki in the sense of taking the center.
Penetrate by taking the other person's spot, hit through them not to them.
Penetrate by cutting down to the throat level.
By taking their spot think of a large ocean wave breaking on the shore. If it breaks over you it knocks you down and sweeps you away. If it breaks before you all the power goes into sand at your feet. You need to break over the opponent.
Cut to the throat means strike with enough power that you would cut down to the throat level not down to the stomach. Nor so light that you barely cut into their head.


I am having a trouble with this waza. Most of time, I just end up with blocking instead of excuting Kaeshi men. It seem it is harder to excute againse 1) tall kenshi, 2)Fast kenshi, 3) Big men motion.

Should I step back? What is your problem with this waza?

Response from a 7.dan...
Try changing to doing a harai type of attack. Don't just receive their shinai but attack it near the tsuba and then hit men. If the person is a hard charger and going through you will not be successful very often.
You can move slightly to your right with hiraki ashi but it really works best on those that are one step type of attackers. If your mind is waiting you will always be slow and late. You must have an attacking mind-seme in order to do these kind of waza.

Who is the right target kenshi to use such waza then ?
1) One step attacker
2) Not too tall
3) slower kenshi

Follow up from 7.dan...
The height is not that important. One of my 5-2 gals uses this waza on 6 foot guys all the time. She has fast hands and feet, so if they are one steppers or slower she gets them. She moves to her right, hits the opponents shinai on the left side near the first knuckle so as to gain maximum deflection and done with the timing of kote-men (only faster) like clapping your hands twice very quickly. You move to the right ever so slightly on the second hit.
Don't move your feet on the first hit, the opponent is already doing the footwork for you. I teach this to all my students, about 50% can use the waza. As with all waza the person has to want to use it in order to master it. Trying it a couple of times will not bring success and you must know when to use it. It is a very good counter to jodan.

How far in on her own shinai does she hit?

Follow up from 7.dan...
You want to be close to the tip of your shinai so that you make contact at the earliest moment in the evolution of the waza. This gives you the time to make the second hit on the men.

Regarding the footwork you can also pivot on the ball of the right foot and step diagonally back to your right with the left foot to gain a little space. The pivot and step are done as one motion. Haga sensei used this method to do men-kaeshi-do. This changes your angle of attack slightly to give you a better line on the men for those faster folks that you need a little more time to affect the waza against.

Avoiding De(bana)-Kote

This comes from a recent discussion on the Kendo World message boards on the topic of debana kote.

Immediately below is the original post which started the discussion and what follows are some selected responses..
This is not meant to be all-encompassing, of course. Just a little food for thought...


I remember reading somewhere (probably on this forum) that in the lead up to the last WKC, the Korean team coach got the national team to practice hitting men as a way of dealing with Japan's strength in scoring with dekote (seems counter intuitive yeh?).

Being a taller player, I'm often concerned at being hit dekote in shiai and am wondering if others have advice as to how one can attack men and not be 'as' open to this cut?

I know that seme, timing, opportunity etc are all crucial. I also realise that dekote is best struck be pressuring your oponent to attack men and scoring in the instant before they attack - I'm pretty sure there's not much you can do about that one. Thus, the dekote I'm talking about is the one which is more oji than shikake waza, where an opponent just uses speed/timing to hit you after you've initiated your attack. The only advice I have been given is that when striking men, to make sure it is with the whole body, as when one does so, it is (apparently?) rare an opponent will hit your kote.

Has anyone got any advice/experience with this? Is there any info going around about what the Korean coach meant by countering Japan's dekote with strong men cuts?

Selected responses:

1. Attacking kote-men is one way to neutralize dekote. (- response from a 5.dan)

2. If you are hitting his men or his kote, or if the aite [the opponent] believes you can, he won't hit the debana kote. Also the biggest reason I can think of to open yourself up to getting a dekote hit scored on you is to rush into your attack too quickly. If you face someone who likes to zap the attacker with a debana kote you need to hold off the attack (but not the pressure of the attack) until they are open or not ready. (- response from a 7.dan)

3. When you practice jigeiko, my suggestion is to not worry about the debana kote during jigeiko, simply focus on hitting a good men. Once your men is strong enough, and you have a proper sense of when to hit, the debana attacks will simply not happen (or come as often). I guess this was the original point about just hitting men (by the Korean team to prep for the WKC). However when you do shiai or taikai, the above approach will be counter productive. During competition focusing on patience will be more fruitful. You just can't be strong and patient unless you spend enough hours doing the jigeiko with the focus on hitting the men. (- response from a 7.dan)